United Fabrics



A
Abrasion Resistance Acetate Acrylic Alta Altered Leather
Angora Aniline Aniline Leather Anti-Bacterial (Anti-Microbial)
B
Backing Bargello Barre Bartack Basket Weave
Blackout Lining Bleaching Blend Boston Fire Code BFD-IX 1 Boucle
Bouquet Bovine Brahma Breathability Brocade
Brocatelle Brushing Buffed Burlap Burn-out
C
Cabretta Calendering Calfskin Calico California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E
California Technical Bulletin 133 Canvas Cattlehide Cavallo Center Cut Suede
Challis Chambray Chenille Chevron Chinoiserie
Chintz Cleaning Code Coated Fabrics Cold Crack Colorfastness
Contemporary Fabric Contract Fabric Corduroy Corrected Grain Cotton
Cotton Print Country of Origin Cowhide Crocking Crypton
Crypton Home Crypton INCASE Cut Velvet
D
Damask Denim Distressed Leather Ditzy Dobby Weave
Duck Durability
E
Embossed Grain Embossing
F
FAR 25.853 (B) Finish Flame Resistant Flame Retardant Flame Stitch
FMVSS-302 Full Grain
G
Glazed Finish Grain
H
Hair-on Hide Hand Herringbone Hide Houndstooth Check
I
Ikat
J
Jacquard
K
Kid Skin Kip Skin
L
Lambskin Leather Leatherette Linen Lisere
Loom
M
Marine Use Matelasse Matte Finish Microfibers/Microdeniers Moire
MVSS-302
N
Nap Natural Grain Nubuck
O
Olefin Ottoman Outdoor Fabric
P
Patent Leather Patina Performance Fabrics Pick Pigmented
Pile Fabric Plaid Polyester Polypropylene
R
Railroaded Rawhide Rayon Recycled Leather Repeat
S
Saddle Leather Sauvage Selvage or Selvedge Shagreen Shantung
Shearling Sheepskin Shrunken Grain Leather Silk Skin
Split Leather Splitting Steerhide Suede Sueding
Sunbrella
T
Tapestry Tipped Toile Top Coat Top Grain
Transitional Tweed
U
UFAC Class 1 UFAC Class 2 Unfinished Leather
V
Vegetable Tanning Velvet Viscose
W
Warp Weft Wiped Woven Fabric
Y
Yarn
 
A
Abrasion Resistance
Typically measured in "double rubs", the degree by which a fabric is able to withstand loss of appearance through surface wear, rubbing, chafing, and other friction.
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Acetate
A manufactured fiber formed by a compound of cellulose, refined from cotton linters and/or wood pulp, and acedic acid.
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Acrylic
A man-made fiber known for its soft, wool-like hand. Solution-dyed versions such as Sunbrella feature excellent resistance to sunlight and chlorine.
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Alta
Alta technology features permanent soil and stain protection that is easy to clean.
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Altered Leather
Leather that has had the original surface of the skin or hide removed, (usually due to imperfections in the original grain surface), and a new grain embossed into the leather. This is also called corrected grain. Most top-grain leathers have altered or corrected grain.
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Angora
The hair of the Angora goat. Used in making genuine mohair fabrics.
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Aniline
The name given to the particular transparent dye used to color dyed leather.
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Aniline Leather
Leather that has been dyed through with aniline dyes. Pure aniline leathers represent approximately 5% of all upholstery leathers produced worldwide. Sometimes topped with a protective coating; can also be waxed. Aniline leather will allow all natural characteristics of a hide to show through.
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Anti-Bacterial (Anti-Microbial)
A fabric or a fiber that incorporates an anti-bacterial chemical agent into the fiber formula, making the finished fiber or fabric resistant to, or inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms. Useful in outdoor, healthcare and hospitality applications.
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B
Backing
A knit or woven backing material used to provide strength and tear-resistance to fabrics in order to make them suitable for additional applications such as wallcovering or upholstery.
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Bargello
A modified zigzag or flamelike design, or any pattern like this. Originated as a needlepoint stitch.
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Barre
An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns and problems during the finishing process.
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Bartack
To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points of strain.)
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Basket Weave
A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process.
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Blackout Lining
A thick, plain fabric, usually white or off-white in color, used in conjunction with drapery fabric. Blackout is used to prevent light from passing through drapery.
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Bleaching
A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.
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Blend
A yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.
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Boston Fire Code BFD-IX 1
The purpose of this test is to limit the flammability of decorations, including not only decorative materials, i.e. curtains and draperies, but also upholstery materials and surface coverings applied over a building\'s interior finish. A stricter test than the UFAC Class 1.
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Boucle
A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats as well as decorative fabrics.
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Bouquet
A design characterized by an arrangement or grouping of flowers.
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Bovine
A cow, ox, or closely related animal.
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Brahma
Brahma is one of the most popular breeds of cattle raised around the world. Due to its greater ability to withstand heat, parasites and insects, it is a preferable breed to be raised in warmer climates. As a result, Brahma hides are typically in good supply and provide a raw material source for entry-level leather hides. The Brahma has a distinct large hump over the top of its shoulder and neck. This hump leaves a narrow gap in the leather hide made from Brahma, but can be worked around, as long as one plans use of materials properly.
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Breathability
The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.
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Brocade
A heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Often gives an embossed appearance by contrasting surface colors and gold or silver yarns.
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Brocatelle
A fabric similar to brocade with a satin or twill figure in high relief on a plain or satin background.
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Brushing
A finishing process for fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used to permit the fibers in the yarns to be raised to create a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture. Creates a softer-handed fabric.
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Buffed
Leather which has been abrased or sueded. This can also be referred to as snuffed, nubuck leather, or grain-sueded leather.
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Burlap
A loosely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric used as a carpet backing, and as inexpensive packaging for sacks of grain or rice. Also, as fashion dictates, burlap may also appear as a drapery fabric.
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Burn-out
A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color, during the burn-out printing process. The chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric. Burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers. When the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in some areas where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric, but leaves the other parts unharmed.
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C
Cabretta
A hair-type sheepskin; specifically those from Brazil.
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Calendering
A process for finishing fabrics in which such special effects as high luster, glazing, embossing, and moiré are produced.
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Calfskin
Skin from a young bovine, male or female.
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Calico
A tightly-woven cotton type fabric with an all-over print, usually a small floral pattern on a contrasting background color. Typically used in apparel and quilting.
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California Technical Bulletin 117 Section E
To meet the requirements of this test, a fabric must meet UFAC Class 1. However, of all the flammability test procedures, this test is probably the most minimal.
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California Technical Bulletin 133
This test applies to the entire piece of furniture, including fabric, foam and frame. Because the test requires a fully made piece of furniture to be tested, no fabric by itself can be said to meet this specification.
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Canvas
Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to the heavier, coarser constructions.
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Cattlehide
General term for hides before tanning from a bovine of any breed or sex, but usually mature; includes bullhide, steerhide, cowhide and sometimes kipskins.
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Cavallo
The natural hide of a pony. Smaller and usually softer than that of cow hides.
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Center Cut Suede
Also called a "true split". A suede split that has had the edges trimmed to leave the bends and the shoulder, leaving the best and most usable part, or the center of the material.
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Challis
A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
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Chambray
A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns
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Chenille
A specialty yarn, characterized by a pile protruding on all sides, resembling a caterpillar. Chenille yarn is used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, tassels, and rugs, and creates a plush, typically soft, yet durable fabric.
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Chevron
A herringbone weave or print in zig-zag stripes.
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Chinoiserie
A pattern derived from Chinese floral or pastoral designs. Typically used in printed fabrics, it can also be seen in jacquard wovens.
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Chintz
A plain-weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric is most commonly used in blouses, apparel, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.
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Cleaning Code
Furniture and textile manufacturers have adopted a voluntary uniform standard for fabric cleanability. Each fabric is marked with a code which indicates the appropriate cleaning method or methods. These typically include W - for water-based cleaning agents, S - for solvent-based cleaning agents, W/S - where either may be used, and X - for vacuum or light brushing only. Please note that these are general guidelines for care. Prior to making any attempt at cleaning, we recommend that you contact your fabric supplier for appropriate cleaning instructions or contact a fabric cleaning professional.
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Coated Fabrics
Fabrics that have been coated with a lacquer, varnish, rubber, plastic resin of polyvinyl chloride (PVC Vinyl) or polyethylene, polyurethane, or other substance to make them longer lasting, improve cleanability or make them impervious to water or other liquids.
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Cold Crack
"Cold Crack" refers to the point at which a vinyl-coated fabric will lose it pliability and crack due to long exposure to extreme cold. This performance characteristic is an important factor to consider in choosing a vinyl fabric for outdoor (snowmobile, motorcycle, playset, etc.) use.
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Colorfastness
A term used to describe a dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, and other environmental conditions.
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Contemporary Fabric
Refers to fabrics with a modern look. Often characterized by geometric or abstract designs.
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Contract Fabric
Heavy duty wearing material, made to certain specifications; for example particular, flammability codes or abrasion resistance. The end use is normally hospitality or public places. For contract use, a fabric must meet a minimum abrasion resistance of 30,000 double rubs.
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Corduroy
A fabric, usually made of cotton, with extra sets of filling yarns woven into the fabric to form ridges of yarn (wales) on the surface.
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Corrected Grain
The outside skin is sanded or abraded to minimize faults. It is then pigmented to cover the sanding and printed with an artificial grain. A spray sealer topcoat is then applied. Corrected grain material is usually called top grain leather.
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Cotton
A natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. The most widely used natural fiber, cotton has a high strength and softness, which gives it great versatility.
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Cotton Print
Fabric designs printed on a cotton base cloth.
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Country of Origin
Country of Origin refers to the source of the finished textile, that is, where it was woven. Component yarns making the fabric may have been manufactured in other locations around the world, but a fabric's origin is where it has been woven into its finished state.
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Cowhide
Hide from a mature female bovine that has produced a calf.
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Crocking
The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric.
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Crypton
Crypton is a patented textile-finishing process applied to textiles which meet a strict series of criteria, creating textiles that are stain, water, and bacteria resistant. Typically used in hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, health care, and other heavy traffic applications, Crypton provides a softer, better-looking alternative to other moisture resistant materials such as vinyl and hard surfaces. Crypton can also be used in the home for care-free, long-lasting freedom from spills, odors and stains.
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Crypton Home
Crypton Home is a patented textile finish which offers superior stain and odor resistance that is permanently bonded to the fiber and will not wear or wash away. These consistent performance features offer textures in a variety of colors that are both beautiful and functional. Crypton Home fabrics can be used in your home, as well as any high traffic area which requires superior performance and cleanabilty.
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Crypton INCASE
Crypton INCASE is a patented fabric treatment which offers multiple levels of protection and cleanability, to stain, odor and microbial resistance. Crypton INCASE fabrics are a perfect choice for areas where a full moisture barrier is not required. Crypton INCASE offers permanent protection in applications such as residential, contract and hospitality upholstery.
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Cut Velvet
Velvet with a cut-out pile that creates a pattern or design.
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D
Damask
A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. Damask patterns are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in traditional settings.
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Denim
True denim is a twill weave cotton fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. Due to the twill construction, one color predominates on the fabric surface.
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Distressed Leather
Leather that has been treated to look vintage or old like a "bomber jacket" or an old briefcase or piece of luggage.
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Ditzy
A term used to refer to any small scaled patterns which may include checks, dots, fans, diamonds and more.
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Dobby Weave
A decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually geometric, that are woven into the fabric. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and have relatively simple designs, as opposed to jacquard-woven fabrics.
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Duck
A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually made of cotton, and is widely used in many applications.
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Durability
The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use. May refer to abrasion resistance, tear strength, lightfastness or seam strength, among other characteristics.
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E
Embossed Grain
An artificial grain pressed into the surface of leather from which the original grain has been removed. This provides a consistent appearance throughout the hide, covering any natural defects.
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Embossing
A calendering process in which fabrics, vinyls or leathers are engraved with the use of heated rollers under pressure to produce a raised design on the fabric surface.
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F
FAR 25.853 (B)
This flammability test applies to fabrics used as upholstery coverings in aircraft. One of the more stringent specifications for a fabric to pass.
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Finish
A surface application on the leather to color, protect, or mask imperfections. More specifically, all processes administered to leather after it has been tanned.
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Flame Resistant
Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses. There is no single standard for flame resistance. The level required for your application will be dictated by your local fire marshal.
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Flame Retardant
A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability.
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Flame Stitch
Fabric design of a zig-zag that has the appearance of flames. Can be multi-colored or tone-on-tone.
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FMVSS-302
A performance criteria and a test method for the flammability of all trim material including upholstery fabrics used inside the passenger compartment of autos sold in the USA.
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Full Grain
The term used for leather made from the outside original skin or hide which has had the hair removed, but otherwise has not been corrected or altered. Full-grain leather possesses the genuine original grain of the animal.
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G
Glazed Finish
Similar to an aniline finish except that the leather surface is polished to a high luster by the action of glass on steel rollers under tremendous pressure.
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Grain
The outside of the hide or skin consisting of the pores, wrinkles and other characteristics which constitute the natural texture of the leather. May vary from smooth to heavily pebbled.
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H
Hair-on Hide
The whole pelt from large animals (cattle, horses, etc.) with the natural hair still remaining. This hide may have its original coloring and pattern or have another color or design, often that of exotic animals (zebra, jaguar, etc.) stenciled onto it.
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Hand
A term used in the leather industry to describe the feel, i.e., softness or fullness of upholstery leather.
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Herringbone
A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals, producing a zig-zag effect. Also known as chevron.
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Hide
The whole pelt from large animals (cattle, horses, etc.).
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Houndstooth Check
A variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns. Also refers to printed fabrics bearing this design.
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I
Ikat
A style of weaving that uses a resist dyeing process similar to tie-dye on either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. Sometimes used to refer to the distinctive geometric patterns utilized in ikat work.
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J
Jacquard
Woven fabrics manufactured using the Jacquard attachment on a loom. This attachment provides versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any type or complexity can be made. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics.
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K
Kid Skin
Skin from a lamb, or young sheep.
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Kip Skin
Skin from a bovine, male or female, intermediate in size between a calf and mature.
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L
Lambskin
Skin from a lamb or young sheep.
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Leather
An animal skin which has been preserved and dressed for use. Leather may be made from nearly any animal, including cattle, reptiles and even fish.
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Leatherette
A manufactured product which imitates leather.
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Linen
A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from flax plant. These fibers are much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very easily, unless blended with manufactured fibers.
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Lisere
A traditional decorative fabric design characterized by vertical colored bands which encompass a floral motif.
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Loom
A machine used for weaving fabrics.
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M
Marine Use
Textiles suitable for marine use typically have the following characteristics: Ultraviolet Resistant pigments, which resist fading from frequent exposure to the sun; Mildew-resistant additives and overall water-resistance.
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Matelasse
A medium to heavyweight luxury fabric made in a double cloth construction to create a blistered or quilted surface. Common end-uses are upholstery, draperies, and some apparel.
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Matte Finish
A flat or dull finish.
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Microfibers/Microdeniers
The name given to ultra-fine manufactured fibers and the fabrics made from them. Fibers made using microfiber technology, provide a superior hand, a gentle drape, and incredible softness. Microfibers are two times finer than silk, three times finer than cotton, eight times finer than wool, and one hundred times finer than a human hair. Four types of microfibers are made currently. These include acrylic, nylon, polyester, and rayon.
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Moire
A corded fabric, usually made from silk or synthetic fibers, which has a distinctive water-marked wavy pattern on the face of the fabric.
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MVSS-302
This specification is for the flammability of all trim material including upholstery fabrics used inside the passenger compartment of passenger vehicles sold in the United States.
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N
Nap
A fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface. The fabric can be napped on either one or both sides. Fabrics typical of having "nap" are suede cloth and velvet.
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Natural Grain
A leather which retains its full original grain, without any changes made in order to correct and even the surface appearance. See "Corrected Leather".
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Nubuck
Or Nubuk; a brushed, grain-sueded leather.
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O
Olefin
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance.
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Ottoman
A tightly woven plain weave ribbed fabric with a hard slightly lustered surface. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer warp yarn with a heavier fill yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus creating the ribbed effect.
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Outdoor Fabric
Outdoor fabrics, such as Sunbrella brand fabrics, typically feature solution-dyed yarns. These yarns make them suitable for outdoor use due to their increased stain and mildew resistance, and easy cleanability. Other fabrics suitable for outdoor use include vinyl-coated fabrics, which typically contain mildew-inhibiting and ultraviolet-resistant ingredients which will ensure that you will enjoy them for a long time.
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P
Patent Leather
Leather with a glossy impermeable finish produced by successive coats of drying oils, varnish, or synthetic resins.
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Patina
A surface appearance of something grown beautiful, especially with age or use; an appearance or aura that is derived from association, habit, or established character.
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Performance Fabrics
Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualities, such as abrasion resistance, moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, cleanability, and wind/water resistance.
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Pick
A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.
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Pigmented
Leather that has been sprayed with a pigmented, opaque finish. A process of coloring and coating in the leather surface with colored pigments to produce surfaces that are highly resistant to wear, fading, etc. This is usually done to cover imperfections in leather, but also is frequently used to provide additional performance characteristics.
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Pile Fabric
A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Velvet, corduroy and suede cloth are examples of pile fabrics.
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Plaid
A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a Scottish tartan.
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Polyester
A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Often blended with cotton to provide the benefits of both fibers.
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Polypropylene
A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance.
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R
Railroaded
Orientation of a fabric's design where the pattern is turned on its side, top to bottom as if viewed with it coming off a roll.
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Rawhide
Untanned skins or hide.
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Rayon
A manufactured fiber composed of cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other vegetable matter. Various names for Rayon are used depending on the process used to make it, such as viscose.
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Recycled Leather
Our recycled leather is like the real thing, only better. Excess leather from manufacturing is processed and combined with a tough, polyurethane wear layer. The end result is beautiful, durable product that looks and feels like genuine top-grain leather.
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Repeat
An entire completed pattern for design and texture. Repeats vary in size considerably, depending on the weave, type of material, texture and use of cloth.
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S
Saddle Leather
Vegetable-tanned cattlehide leather for harnesses and saddles, usually of a natural tan shade and rather flexible.
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Sauvage
When similar colors are blended in a stippled effect for a tone-on-tone appearance. This adds depth and character to the leather.
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Selvage or Selvedge
The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.
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Shagreen
Leather made from the rough hide of a ray or shark. Characterized by its irregularly pebbled surface.
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Shantung
A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. Typically made with silk, but also made from synthetics such as polyester.
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Shearling
Wooled sheep and lambskins, tanned with the wool intact.
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Sheepskin
Skin from a mature sheep.
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Shrunken Grain Leather
A full, natural-grain leather which is shrunken to enlarge and enhance the grain of the leather.
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Silk
A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.
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Skin
The pelt from small animals (calf, sheep, goat, etc.).
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Split Leather
Skin sliced in layers to give uniform thickness to the piece (grain side). Split leather (inside) is trimmed and finished as suede. Cheap leathers are sometimes pigmented splits with embossed imitation grain.
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Splitting
Cutting leather into two or more layers, or cutting leather into two sides preparatory to tanning.
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Steerhide
Hide from a mature male bovine, incapable of reproduction, having been raised for beef.
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Suede
Leathers that are finished by buffing the flesh side (opposite the grain side) to produce a nap. This term refers to the napping process, and is unrelated to the type of skin used. Suede may come from any number of hides. This term also refers to fabrics made to simulate the look of suede leather.
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Sueding
The process of raising fibers on the grain side of a hide or skin to give a velvet nap effect. Also referred to as "brushing". This is generally called "nubuck" or "grain suede."
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Sunbrella
Sunbrella brand fabrics are made for outdoor and indoor use. Their solution-dyed acrylic yarns inherently resist fading from sunlight, resist mildew and can even be cleaned with a bleach solution to get rid of the toughest stains - without harming the fabric.
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T
Tapestry
A heavy, ribbed fabric, typically featuring an elaborate design or pictorial display. The design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back.
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Tipped
Leather that has had a coloring, glaze or other finish applied to the uppermost surface of its grain, affecting only the "peak" but not the "valleys". This can create an interesting dual-tone or high-low effect, enhancing the natural grain.
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Toile
A fabric, typically a printed fabric, with scenic designs printed in one color usually depicting pastoral scenes.
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Top Coat
A transparent protective coating applied to the leather surface. See "Finish" also.
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Top Grain
The term intended to define genuine grain leather, as opposed to split leather which has been pigmented and embossed with a new grain. In reality, top-grain leather usually has had the original grain removed and an imitation grain embossed into the surface.
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Transitional
A hybrid of design elements borrowed multiple eras or styles of design; quite often traditional design blended with contemporary.
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Tweed
A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns.
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U
UFAC Class 1
The basic test method designed to determine the flammability performance level of upholstery fabric in contact with polyurethane foam, specifically with respect to cigarette ignition resistance.
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UFAC Class 2
Textiles which do not meet the flammability criteria of UFAC Class I for upholstered furniture are considered UFAC Class II. To meet the UFAC Flammability specifications, these textiles should be used in conjunction with a flame-retardant lining material between the textile cover and the upholstery foam.
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Unfinished Leather
(Also "Naked") Normally defines aniline-dyed, naked leathers with no additional application intended to finish, color or treat in a way that would alter the natural characteristics of the leather.
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V
Vegetable Tanning
The conversion of rawhide into leather with a greater body and firmness than the more general method of chromium tanning.
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Velvet
A medium weight cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. It is woven using two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet is commonly made with a filament fiber for high luster and smooth hand.
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Viscose
The most common type of rayon.
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W
Warp
In woven fabric, the yarns that run lengthwise and is interwoven with the fill (weft) yarns.
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Weft
In woven fabric, the filling yarns that run perpendicular to the warp yarns, or side-to-side across the roll.
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Wiped
Leather which has had a dye applied by hand to give a mottled, random or high-low effect to the coloration.
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Woven Fabric
Fabrics composed of two sets of yarns. One set of yarns, the warp, runs along the length of the fabric. The other set of yarns, the fill or weft, is perpendicular to the warp. Woven fabrics are held together by weaving the warp and the fill yarns over and under each other.
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Y
Yarn
A continuous strand of textile fibers created when a cluster of individual fibers are twisted together. These long yarns are used to create fabrics, either by knitting or weaving.
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